Clone your favorite operating system

First make sure partition table is msdos in both disks. Verify this with gparted. I do not know if this will work for GPT. To backup the existing partition table do this. The first line prints it.
sfdisk -d /dev/sda
sfdisk -d /dev/sda > /tmp/backup-file-sda.bak 
To restore the partition table to a new drive
sfdisk /dev/sdb < /tmp/backup-file-sda.bak 
To directly copy the partition table from sda to sdb
sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk /dev/sdb
Backup the BootSector/MBR. I do not know why and which command works but running these two successively made it work!
dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb bs=512 count=1
dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb bs=512 count=63
Now the new disk must have same number and type of the partitions.

Clone the partitions using gparted as usual.

Restart, the PC and it must automatically work.